Insulation is covering a live wire with a material that won't conduct the electricity.
Double insulation is a precaution that makes sure the live wire cannot touch the casing (so no shock can be conducted) usually by putting extra insulation round that wire. Double insulation can also mean that the casing of an object is plastic so even if the wire touches it, it wont conduct.
An earth wire is touching the case so that if a current is in the case, it will be directed through the earth wire, this will then take the current to the earth. Additionally the surge of electricity in the wire may break the fuse.
Fuses are sections of wire in the circuit that melt if too high a current goes through them. They come with different maximum currents.
Circuit breakers have an electromagnet that is activated if the current goes above a certain limit. the electromagnet pulls an iron switch towards it, this opens the switch and breaks the circuit.